The Righteousness Which is of Faith is Imputed
Paul was the greatest human teacher that ever lived. God committed the teaching of righteousness by faith to his trust. His understanding of this gospel truth was in advance of all the other apostles. When the Reformers were struggling to get out of the darkness of Romanism, only the writings of Paul could bring them the needed deliverance. It was his clear utterances on "the righteousness which is of faith" that gave birth to the Reformation:
What Is Righteousness?
It is in the book of Romans, more than any other epistle, that Paul most fully explains the truth of the righteousness which is by faith. “ When Paul speaks of this saving, justifying righteousness, he means nothing but the righteousness and purity of God Himself:
God's righteousness was so infinite, so incomprehensible, so beyond the ability of angels to endure, that no language of heaven or earth could describe it. But God unfolded it and put it on display in the gospel of His crucified sinless Son:
Hanging on the cross for guilty sinners, Christ was the gospel. In this act God revealed His righteousness to angels and to men.
How Much Righteousness?
When God gave His Son to die on behalf of sinful men, He gave His own life and perfect sinless righteousness for their justification and acceptance before God. This was so because in Jesus was not only the sinless life of the Father, but because of Christ's eternal divinity His life was the total life of the Father. Jesus could say, "All things that the Father hath are Mine." John 16:15. And Paul declared: "For in Him the complete being of God, by God's own choice, came to dwell." "For it is in Christ that the complete being of the Godhead dwells embodied.” ". . . in Him lie hidden all God's treasures of wisdom and knowledge." Col. 1:19; 2:9, 3, N.E.B.
Jesus Christ was not only sinless and perfect, but infinitely perfect. His life was of infinite value because He was the embodiment of divine life and righteousness. He came to the cross and freely gave this life of infinite value for the worthless lives of sinful men. Jesus was the total outlay of heaven's treasure, the accumulated love and wealth of eternity, the totality of God's righteousness. When we raise our little minds to comprehend the gospel, we are surveying the biggest thing in the universe — the righteousness of God Himself. And it is by His righteousness, all of His righteousness, and nothing less than all of it, that sinners are justified.
Again we ask, by whose righteousness are sinners justified? By God's righteousness alone! And how much of God's righteousness does it require to justify sinners? All of it! Such is the value of the sacrifice made on Calvary. If one could collect all the righteousness of all the angels and all the saints and total it together, it would be as nothing compared to the incomprehensible and infinite righteousness which was poured out for the salvation of guilty sinners. Such is the righteousness which is "unto all and upon all them that believe" in Jesus. This righteousness is that of God Himself in the person of the Lord Jesus Christ.
Justified by Righteousness Imputed
Once we grasp the truth that it is God's righteousness which justifies, and that it requires all of it to justify, we can appreciate Paul's doctrine of justification by the imputation of righteousness. The great error of Romanism consists in the idea that a sinner can be justified by having righteousness poured into him. As if the full glory and dimension of God's righteousness could be reduced to an intra-human experience! How could the little human temple contain the sum total of the accumulated treasure of eternity? Thus does the mind of antichrist try to reduce the unspeakable gift ("Thanks be to God for His indescribable gift!" 2 Cor. 9:15) of God to something no bigger than a little human experience.
Imagine yourself standing beside the mighty Amazon River, awed by the sheer vastness of its ceaseless stream. Then in your thirst you step down to its bank with your little cup. Would you be foolish enough to think that you could contain it all in your stomach? Yet that Amazon is only a little thing in this little dot of a world, which is only a dot in our solar system; and our solar system is but a speck in the great galaxies of the universe. But above, beyond and greater than all, is the mighty God and His righteousness; and even ten thousand million Amazons could only faintly portray the mightiness of His righteousness.
Yet all of it has been poured out as a mighty stream of grace for my justification; and it requires all of it, and nothing less than all of it, to justify me, a sinner. Therefore, in order to be justified by an infused righteousness, I would be confronted with something more impossible than drinking one million Amazons. Remember, it takes the whole stream of God's grace to give me right standing with God. Therefore I could never contain enough in my experience in order to be justified.
If you received the news that you had inherited a gift of thirty billion dollars, would you run to collect it in a couple of suitcases? Why, it would be so vast that you could only deposit it in your account at the bank. So God's gift of righteousness in Jesus Christ is so incomprehensibly vast that He credits it to him who believes and receives Jesus as a personal Savior. The little human temple is far too small, too finite, to contain all of the immeasurable wealth of God's favor; yet God freely imputes all of it for the repentant believer's justification. Christ suffering on the cross of Calvary is the full revelation of the righteousness of God. This alone draws us to Him as our Savior and Lord in repentance for our sins:
The Believer's Righteousness Is in Heaven
Since the little human temple cannot contain all of the righteousness of God, it is utterly impossible to stand justified by a "within" righteousness. There is only one temple great enough to contain this saving righteousness, and that is the temple in heaven (Hebrews 8:1-2).
And more glorious yet, there is a Man in that temple who contains the sum total of God's righteousness. This is the mystery of the incarnation. That Man is the God-Man, and in Him dwells "all the fullness of the Godhead bodily." Col. 2:9. Therefore our justification may be found only in Him (See Isa. 45:24).
Thus, it is most certain that the righteousness which gives believers right standing with God is found only in heaven, only in one Man. Indeed, the righteousness of the saints is Christ Himself, as Jeremiah 23:6 declares, "This is His name whereby He shall be called, THE LORD OUR RIGHTEOUSNESS."
Justifying righteousness is not found on earth, but millions of light years away. Justifying righteousness is never found in the believer, but it always remains outside of and extrinsic to him. The righteousness which is of faith does not try to bring that righteousness down to earth (Rom. 10:6-11),
but the word of faith which is preached in the gospel enables man to believe "unto righteousness." Rom. 10:10. Faith reaches beyond this earth, enters heaven itself, and embracing that Man at God's right hand, declares, "This is my Righteousness."
God has mercifully placed the treasure of our righteousness in heaven. No moth can eat it, no rust can corrupt it, and no thief can steal it. This righteousness is tried and tested. It can never fail, for it is everlasting. The only thing we need is faith in it. If our faith lays hold on this heavenly treasure, one day God will take us to where our righteousness is. In the meantime we must be content to have this righteousness only by faith. If on the other hand we follow the mind of antichrist by trying to bring this righteousness down to this earth, God will leave us on this earth to perish with the man of sin.
The Reformation Concept of Righteousness by Faith
God revealed the Pauline teaching of righteousness by faith to Martin Luther, and with it he blazed the trail from the darkness of Romanism. His was the clearest voice in Christendom on justification by faith since the days of the apostle Paul. Said Luther:
When the troubled soul of John Bunyan heard a voice saying, "Your righteousness is in heaven," he was delivered from darkness and stepped into the light of the righteousness which is of faith. This soul, who breathed the very atmosphere of heaven in Bedford jail, expressed the same concepts as Martin Luther.
The righteousness which is imputed to the believer in Jesus gives him a standing with God higher than the standing enjoyed by Adam in his sinless state. It gives him a higher standing than the angels. It raises him in the scale of moral value to be on an equality with Jesus Christ. Such is the gift of God's justifying righteousness, which comes by the faith of Jesus Christ. Yet it is in heaven, not on earth; outside of us, never within the greatest saint; in Jesus Christ, and no one but Jesus Christ.
The Gift of the Spirit
But says one, "Don't you believe that righteousness must be inwrought in the human character? What about the believer's sanctification?" To which we answer, We certainly believe in the necessity of moral renovation within man. Christians will live righteously in this present evil world. But the most excellent virtues within the saints have no part in their justification before God. The law requires a far more excellent righteousness than is found within any man's experience.
It is most important to observe that Paul never confuses the saving righteousness of God with the work of grace upon the hearts of God's people. Paul speaks of two gifts: the gift of righteousness (Rom. 5:17), and the gift of the Spirit (Rom.5:5). In the book of Romans Paul shows that this gift of righteousness is imputed (credited), and the gift of the Spirit is imparted (infused). The gift of righteousness places the believer in such favorable standing with God that he is given access to the gift of the Holy Spirit. Romans 5:1-5 shows that the Spirit is poured in the heart as a result of justification. Or as Paul says in Romans 8:10, the Spirit brings life "because you have been justified." N.E.B.
The Spirit is poured upon believers on no other basis than the righteousness of Christ. It is not bestowed because of a man's attainment, but because of Christ's atonement. Nothing but the doing and dying of Christ can entitle anyone to receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. But when a repentant sinner grasps by faith the sacrifice of Christ in His behalf, God's righteousness is upon him. He appears before God not only as if he had never sinned, but he is clothed with more moral excellence than the angel Gabriel.
The Spirit reproduces in the life of the believer the attributes of the character of Christ. He stirs him up to all manner of diligence, making him willing to do and to die for the Master. But none of these virtues, be it ever so excellent, justifies the believer. They are not the root of his right standing with God, but the fruit of it.
The Holy Spirit does not come to speak of Himself (John 16:13-15).
There is a reason for not knowing His name. He comes only to glorify Christ. It is His work to create faith in Jesus, and to lead the repentant believer from one measure of faith to another measure of faith (Rom. 1:17).
The just lives by faith in his Righteousness which is up in heaven, and it is the Spirit's work to create, maintain and strengthen that faith. The more the Spirit works within a repentant believer, the more it will lead him to rely on that righteousness which is outside, above and beyond him. The Spirit will never lead a man to look within his own experience for acceptance and right standing with God. As John Bunyan testified:
True sanctification, being an inward work, is for the most part invisible and imperceptible to the one who experiences it. It may be illustrated by this physical fact— we can see others, but we cannot see ourselves. So it is in the spiritual realm. It is our work to behold Christ, to rejoice that He is our righteousness, and to rest in the fact that His righteousness is all-sufficient.